special characters

HTML ampersand-semicolon notation.

StoryKettle » Notes » special characters

Copyright © 2010, Michael M Wayman

The four HTML special characters ampersand &   less than <   greater than >   and double quote "   must be especially written as   &amp;   &lt;   &gt;   and   &quot;   respectively. See the first four big codes below.

Other characters which are not in the standard (seven bit) ASCII charset can be written in ISO-8859-1 or UTF-8 charsets. Or in ampersand-semicolon notation, for example the Euro symbol as &euro; or &#8364; where 8364 is the Unicode decimal value for the Euro symbol.

Some useful special characters with side effects are &nbsp; the non-breaking space, &thinsp; the thin space, &shy; the soft or discretionary hyphen, and &#8209; the non-breaking hyphen.

Confused? See Character encodings in HTML – W3C tutorial and miscellaneous UTC symbols and more symbols and especially ways of representing any Unicode character in HTML using only ASCII characters. See also Punctuation and Delightful HTML Symbols. Note that W3C, the World Wide Web Consortium, is the standard for HTML design.

Verwirrt? Deutch Siehe Zeichenvorrat, Sonderzeichen und HTML-eigene Zeichen und Unicode und Anführungszeichen und W3C auf Deutsch, das World Wide Web Consortium.

Some codes that I use are listed below. Note the various umlauts, quotes and dashes.

& &amp;
< &lt;
> &gt;
" &quot;

ä &auml;
ë &euml;
ï &iuml;
ö &ouml;
ü &uuml;
Ä &Auml;
Ë &Euml;
Ï &Iuml;
Ö &Ouml;
Ü &Uuml;
ß &szlig;

æ &aelig;
á &aacute;
à &agrave;
â &acirc;
å &aring;
ç &ccedil;
é &eacute;
è &egrave;
ê &ecirc;
í &iacute;
î &icirc;
ó &oacute;
ø &oslash;
ô &ocirc;
š &scaron;
ý &yacute;
ñ &ntilde;

£ &pound;
© &copy;
½ &frac12;
§ &sect;
« &laquo;
» &raquo;
° &deg;
÷ &divide;

ć &#263;
č &#269;
ı &#305;
ő &#337;
ū &#363;
ų &#371;
ż &#380;
ž &#382;
ě &#283;
ğ &#287;
ħ &#295;